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How To Set Up Rook To Manage Ceph Within Kubernetes

In this article, you will learn how to set up Rook to manage Ceph within Kubernetes using a free Platform9 Kubernetes account.

Rook is an open-source, cloud-native solution, that delivers production-ready management for file, block, and Object storage.

Rook is a set of storage Operators for Kubernetes that turn distributed storage systems into self-managing, self-scaling, self-healing storage services. It automates tasks such as deployment, configuration, scaling, upgrading, monitoring, resource management for distributed storage like Ceph on top of Kubernetes. It has support for multiple storage providers like Ceph, EdgeFS, Cassandra, NFS, Yugabyte DB, and CockroachDB – via a Kubernetes Operator for each one.

With Rook, you can automate resource management, scale and converge your storage clusters, distribute and replicate data to minimize data loss, optimize workloads on commodity hardware, and enable elastic storage in your data center.

Getting Started

To get started, create your free Platform9 Kubernetes account by entering your email below, then select the ‘Deploy Now’ option. Once you have created and verified your account, follow the steps outlined below. 

Step 1: Create your free account

Step 1: Create your free account


We have tested Rook with the following configuration on the cluster:

  1. Platform9 Freedom Plan (a free tier account is required) with three worker nodes and one Master node
  2. Each worker node should have at least one free unformatted disk of size 10GiB attached to it.
  3. MetalLB load balancer configured on bare metal cluster for enabling optional dashboard.
  4. Flannel or Calico for CNI.
  5. Worker node size: 2VPUs x 8GB Memory (4VPU x 16GB recommended)
  6. Master node size: 2VCPU x 8GB Memory (4VPU x 16GB recommended)
  7. ‘lvm2’ is required on Ubuntu 16.04. Ubuntu 18.04 comes pre installed with lvm2.

Note: There may be additional prerequisites for CentOS.

Deploying Rook To Manage Ceph Within Kubernetes

Clone the Kool Kubernetes repository on any machine from where the kubectl can deploy JSON manifests to your Kubernetes cluster.

$ git clone

Deploy yamls in following order:

$ kubectl apply -f csi/rook/internal-ceph/1.4.6/1-common.yaml

Deploy the second yaml for Rook operator

$ kubectl apply -f csi/rook/internal-ceph/1.4.6/2-operator.yaml
configmap/rook-ceph-operator-config created
deployment.apps/rook-ceph-operator created

Verify the Rook pods are running before proceeding with next deployment yaml.

$ k get all -n rook-ceph
NAME                                      READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/rook-ceph-operator-848b8bc676-bdhc6   1/1     Running   0          64m
pod/rook-discover-7w89l                   1/1     Running   0          64m
pod/rook-discover-cm5vm                   1/1     Running   0          64m
pod/rook-discover-lddn2                   1/1     Running   0          64m

daemonset.apps/rook-discover   3         3         3       3            3           <none>          64m

NAME                                 READY   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
deployment.apps/rook-ceph-operator   1/1     1            1           64m

NAME                                            DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
replicaset.apps/rook-ceph-operator-848b8bc676   1         1         1       64m

Deploy third yaml to create the Ceph cluster.

$ kubectl apply -f csi/rook/internal-ceph/1.4.6/3-cluster.yaml created

Verify all Ceph pods are running. The rook-ceph-osd-prepare pods will be in completed status.

$ kubectl get po -n rook-ceph
NAME                                                      READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE
csi-cephfsplugin-dccsx                                    3/3     Running     0          25m
csi-cephfsplugin-kmxcn                                    3/3     Running     0          25m
csi-cephfsplugin-provisioner-84fcf498dd-nnd89             4/4     Running     0          25m
csi-cephfsplugin-provisioner-84fcf498dd-xklgp             4/4     Running     0          25m
csi-cephfsplugin-r9kwr                                    3/3     Running     0          25m
csi-rbdplugin-2dnlw                                       3/3     Running     0          25m
csi-rbdplugin-5bfnn                                       3/3     Running     0          25m
csi-rbdplugin-d2trb                                       3/3     Running     0          25m
csi-rbdplugin-provisioner-7997bbf8b5-grzjg                5/5     Running     0          25m
csi-rbdplugin-provisioner-7997bbf8b5-v76wc                5/5     Running     0          25m
rook-ceph-crashcollector-   1/1     Running     0          23m
rook-ceph-crashcollector-   1/1     Running     0          23m
rook-ceph-crashcollector-     1/1     Running     0          19m
rook-ceph-mgr-a-f4f7b5485-w2sm2                           1/1     Running     0          19m
rook-ceph-mon-a-5f6955f485-qjz5r                          1/1     Running     0          23m
rook-ceph-mon-b-7b8776db75-sv9hr                          1/1     Running     0          23m
rook-ceph-mon-d-d447845d4-259cm                           1/1     Running     0          18m
rook-ceph-operator-848b8bc676-bdhc6                       1/1     Running     0          94m
rook-ceph-osd-prepare-                 0/1     Completed   0          19m
rook-ceph-osd-prepare-                 0/1     Completed   0          19m
rook-ceph-osd-prepare-                  0/1     Completed   0          19m
rook-discover-7w89l                                       1/1     Running     0          94m
rook-discover-cm5vm                                       1/1     Running     0          94m
rook-discover-lddn2                                       1/1     Running     0          94m

Create the StorageClass

$ kubectl apply -f csi/rook/internal-ceph/1.4.6/4-storageclass.yaml created created

$ k get sc
rook-ceph-block   Delete          Immediate           true                   5s

Install the toolbox to run commands to validate the cluster

$ kubectl apply -f csi/rook/internal-ceph/1.4.6/5-toolbox.yaml
deployment.apps/rook-ceph-tools created

You can validate the Ceph cluster status from the toolbox pod as shown below

$ kubectl -n rook-ceph exec -it $(kubectl -n rook-ceph get pod -l "app=rook-ceph-tools" \
  -o jsonpath='{.items[0]}') bash

[root@worker03 /]# ceph status
    id:     bd07342c-5dc3-4565-ab3e-cd70de7dfd83
    health: HEALTH_WARN
            too few PGs per OSD (8 < min 30)

    mon: 3 daemons, quorum a,b,d (age 68m)
    mgr: a(active, since 46s)
    osd: 3 osds: 3 up (since 63m), 3 in (since 63m)

    pools:   1 pools, 8 pgs
    objects: 6 objects, 35 B
    usage:   3.0 GiB used, 54 GiB / 57 GiB avail
    pgs:     8 active+clean

[root@worker03 /]# ceph osd tree
-1       0.05576 root default
-3       0.01859     host 10-12-2-21
 0   hdd 0.01859         osd.0              up  1.00000 1.00000
-7       0.01859     host 10-12-2-24
 1   hdd 0.01859         osd.1              up  1.00000 1.00000
-5       0.01859     host 10-12-2-6
 2   hdd 0.01859         osd.2              up  1.00000 1.00000

 [root@worker03 /]# ceph osd status
| id |      host  |  used | avail | wr ops | wr data | rd ops | rd data |   state   |
| 0  | | 1027M | 17.9G |    0   |     0   |    0   |     0   | exists,up |
| 1  | | 1027M | 17.9G |    0   |     0   |    0   |     0   | exists,up |
| 2  | | 1027M | 17.9G |    0   |     0   |    0   |     0   | exists,up |

Create a test PVC from the StorageClass

$ kubectl apply -f csi/rook/internal-ceph/1.4.6/6-pvc.yaml
persistentvolumeclaim/rbd-pvc configured

Validate the PVC is bound to a PV from rook-ceph-block StorageClass

$ kubectl get pv,pvc
NAME                                                        CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS   CLAIM             STORAGECLASS      REASON   AGE
persistentvolume/pvc-f5f8dd87-5361-4114-ab40-81f666646d17   1Gi        RWO            Delete           Bound    default/rbd-pvc   rook-ceph-block            65m

NAME                            STATUS   VOLUME                                     CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   STORAGECLASS      AGE
persistentvolumeclaim/rbd-pvc   Bound    pvc-f5f8dd87-5361-4114-ab40-81f666646d17   1Gi        RWO            rook-ceph-block   122m

The StorageClass will also be visible in the PMK UI.

Fig 1. CSI with Rook and Ceph

CSI with Rook and Ceph

Now that you have set up Rook To Manage Ceph Within Kubernetes, let’s enable snapshot functionality.

Enabling CSI Snapshot functionality

There are certain use-cases where you need volume snapshot functionality and you need to have volumesnapshotclasses, volumesnapshotcontents and volumesnapshots objects present on the cluster.

This can be implemented by running the following commands.

kubectl apply -f apply -f
kubectl apply -f
kubectl apply -f
kubectl apply -f

Finally, you can deploy the Snapshot class that’s needed for creating Volume Snapshots –

kubectl apply -f csi/rook/internal-ceph/1.4.6/8-snapshot-class.yaml

Now let’s test the volumeSnapshot creation and restore by creating a test volumeSnapshot. If you have not already created a test snapshot as mentioned earlier, run the following command to create it

kubectl apply -f csi/rook/internal-ceph/1.4.6/6-pvc.yaml

Next, create a snapshot by running the following command

kubectl apply -f csi/rook/internal-ceph/1.4.6/9-volume-snapshot.yaml

Ensure that you’re able to observe the volume snapshot in the following command

kubectl get volumesnapshots

Now, lets restore the snapshot

kubectl apply -f 10-volume-snapshot-restore.yaml

You should now be able to observe both the PV and the associated snapshots.


Next Steps

In this blog, we walked through a tutorial on how to set up Rook to manage Ceph within Kubernetes clusters. We hope you found this blog informative and engaging. For more reads like this one, visit our blog page or subscribe for up-to-date news, projects, and related content in real-time.   

Check out our additional complete stack projects in our Github repos.

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